2. Restoring pH balance. The interaction of gluconolactone with skin begins once it was applied, affecting the acid mantle. The enzyme activity depends on the pH balance that may be disrupted by hostile environment, make-up, skin care or pathology. The gentle influence of gluconolactone helps to achieve proper pH level restoring pH balance and a proper skin renewal process.
3. Recovery of skin barrier properties, collagen fibres strengthening. Skin barrier integrity is dependent on serine protease activity – an enzyme that cleaves peptide bones in proteins. Skin cells are connected with protein fibres. That means that reduction of serine protease activity caused by lower pH level in the acid mantle can help to maintain cell junctions. Gluconolactone also activates lipid synthesis in keratinocytes providing moisture into horny layer of skin.
4. Moisturizing effect. The ability of gluconolactone to transfer water molecules plays a central role in skin moisturizing. Getting in the granular layer of skin, water causes calcium ions concentration decline sending signal to the body to stimulate lipid synthesis in keratinocytes.
5. Hyperpigmentation removal and photo-aging protection effect. As a chelating agent, gluconolactone can bind and remove free radicals from the body. The oxidation process, caused by overabundance of iron and UV-rays influence, occurs in skin pigmentation that is a typical sign of photo ageing. Gluconolactone helps to bind free iron ions preventing the oxidation process and consequences of UV-radiation.
6. Lifting and firming effect, skin surface smoothing. Gluconolactone initiates processes that precede the production of hyaluronic acid in keratinocytes and fibroblasts, as well as synthesis in matrix metalloproteinase (necessary for tissue regeneration) and collagen.
7. Skin tone smoothing effect is provided by keratolytic action of gluconolactone – superficial dead skin cells exfoliation.