2. Regeneration. Lactobionic acid includes galactose, which is famous for its wound-healing properties. The acid allows for repair of damaged skin structures and faster regeneration.
3. Gradual skin penetration. Lactobionic acid and gluconolactone have considerable molecular mass and consists of relatively big molecules. As a result, they penetrate skin gradually, layer by layer. Dead skin cells are removed gently, causing no skin irritation. The acids lighten skin, making pigment spots less visible.
4. Anti-photo ageing activity. Lactobionic acid inhibits matrix metalloproteinases, which are the main cause of skin aging. They destroy the major components of the extracellular matrix of the skin, collagen in particular, causing elasticity loss, deep wrinkles and a sagging face. Metalloproteinases are responsible for skin aging process and the development of telangiectasias – oblong red areas on the face. Their activity is stimulated by long-term exposure to sunlight and leads to rapid photo ageing. Skin becomes smoother. Thanks to its ability to normalize metabolic processes, affect fibroblasts, and increase collagen production, it lifts and removes even deep wrinkles.
5. Antioxidant properties. Lactobionic acid can function as a link between iron ions, providing strong antioxidant effect. It removes free radical intermediates and protects skin from dangerous UV radiation. Gluconolactone is a natural antioxidant which is as effective as vitamin C (ascorbic acid) and vitamin E (tocopherol). It is contained in the skin maintaining optimal moisture content. Gluconolactone blocks the synthesis of pro-interleukin-1 which is responsible for the regulation of immune and which high concentration in the horny layer of the skin can cause increased inflammation.
6. Deep moisturizing. Lactobionic acid helps to moisturize skin. It is capable of adsorbing water and trapping it inside the skin even when the skin is exposed to adverse weather conditions, i.e. increasingly dry air, for a long period of time. Lactobionic acid creates a water film on the surface of skin, which helps to tackle signs of skin dryness, itching, and tightness for a long time.
The ability of gluconolactone to transfer water molecules plays a central role in skin moisturizing. Getting in the granular layer of skin, water causes calcium ions concentration decline sending signal to the body to stimulate lipid synthesis in keratinocytes. Gluconolactone also activates lipid synthesis in keratinocytes providing moisture into horny layer of skin.