2. Keratolitic effect: Disrupt the bonds between corneocytes in the horny layer which results in exfoliation of dead skin cells. This process promotes skin renovation activating cell proliferation in the basal layer.
3. Regeneration: Lactobionic acid includes galactose, which is famous for its wound-healing properties. The acid promotes repairing process of damaged skin structures and faster healing.
4. Gradual skin penetration: pha have considerable molecular mass and consists of relatively big molecules. As a result, they penetrate skin gradually, layer by layer. Dead skin cells are removed gently, causing no skin irritation. The acids lighten skin, making blemishes less visible.
5. Anti-photo ageing activity: Lactobionic acid inhibits matrix metalloproteinases, which are the main cause of skin aging. They destroy the major components of the extracellular matrix, collagen in particular, causing elasticity loss, deep wrinkles and skin sagging. Metalloproteinases are also responsible for the development of redness and couperosis on the face.
6. Antioxidant properties: Lactobionic acid can function as a link between iron ions, providing strong antioxidant effect. It removes free radical intermediates and protects skin from dangerous UV radiation. Gluconolactone is also a natural antioxidant which is as effective as vitamin C (ascorbic acid) and vitamin E (tocopherol). Gluconolactone blocks the synthesis of pro-interleukin-1 which is responsible for the regulation of immune and which high concentration in the horny layer cause increased inflammation.
6. Deep moisturising: Lactobionic acid is capable of adsorbing water and trapping it inside the skin. Lactobionic acid creates a water film on the surface of skin, which helps to tackle signs of skin dryness, itching, and tightness for a long time. The ability of gluconolactone to transfer water molecules plays also a central role in skin moisturising. Getting in the granular layer of skin, water causes calcium ions concentration decline sending signal to the body to stimulate lipid synthesis in keratinocytes. Hydrating effect: As one of the NMF components, lactic acid provides powerful moisturising action. Lactic acid is a water retaining substance complex in the horny layer of skin possessing the ability to attract and retain moisture. By epidermal renovation biologically dead cells of the horny layer are replaced by metabolically active cells of the basal layer.
7. Lifting effect: Lactic acid stimulates the proliferation of fibroblasts. Fibroblasts are producing components of the intercellular substance (collagen, elastin, fibronectin) and are responsible for synthesis of glycosaminoglycans (or mucopolysaccharides known for lubricating properties that are essential for human body).
8. Sebo-static and comedolytic effect: Disrupt of intercellular connections between corneocytes unblocking clogged pores and reducing sebum secretion. Lactic acid also promotes triglyceride degradation inhibiting lipase released by acne-causing bacteria, thereby preventing inflammation. It helps to control sebum secretion reducing excessive oiliness and relieving dryness, promotes large pores shrinking and reduces acne skin with comedones, papules and pustules without over-drying it.
9. Whitening effect achieved by dead skin cells exfoliation. Lactic acid also facilitates uniform distribution of melanin granules in the epidermis and promotes tyrosinase inhibition.
10. Bacteriostatic and anti-inflammatory effect: The acidifying effect of ionized lactic acid supported by skin non-penetrating lactate ion provides unfavourable conditions for pathogenic bacteria growth (most effective against anaerobic bacteria and slightly less effective against yeast and fungi).